Universities The term educational technology refers to the use of technology in educational settings, whether it be elementary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, corporate training sites, or independent study at home. This discussion, however, will focus on educational technology in grades K— Educational technology has both general and specialized meanings.
Since Asperger, a Viennese paediatrician, first described the syndrome that was later to bear his name Asperger,there has been a great deal of debate about its status, its particular characteristics and whether it can truly be distinguished from autism see e.
Frith, ; Howlin, Nevertheless, the inclusion of AS was an important development because of the impact of these bodies on research and practice. Since the manuals present an entire diagnostic system they tend to crystallize our thinking about the relationship between conditions and how these should be described and distinguished, thus providing a focus for remedial programmes.
The manuals, albeit conceived within a rather medical framework, are increasingly widely used by professionals in education as well as health, whose task it is to ensure that appropriate criteria are applied before an individual is assigned a particular label. Although most teachers and therapists will be familiar with the term Asperger Syndrome and many will have had direct experience of working with a child bearing such a label, not all will be familiar with the full scale of the problems such children can encounter in school.
They include examples of impaired social interaction and the obsessional pursuit of repetitive or idiosyncratic interests, while at the same time emphasizing normality of cognitive and early language development.
In addition, both manuals mention 'clumsy' movement as a common feature but do not consider this to be a defining feature, i. Given the focus of this journal, it will not surprise our readers to discover that it is these movement difficulties to which we draw particular attention in this paper.
More specifically, we want to ensure that practitioners are aware of the fact that many children with AS find handwriting a particularly difficult skill to acquire and are likely to need special help right from the start.
Although Asperger himself did not consider the question of whether motor difficulties were characteristic of all children with the other symptoms he described, he certainly attached considerable weight to 'clumsiness' in his clinical descriptions of the children with whom he worked.
In the classic paper on the syndrome Asperger, translated in Frith,we find four case histories each describing the child as poorly coordinated. The difficulties mentioned include absence of facial expression, poor fine motor coordination, a lack of fluency in locomotion and in all but once case, special problems with handwriting: In his tense fist, the pencil could not run smoothly.
A whole page would suddenly become covered with big swirls, the exercise book would be drilled full of holes, if not torn up. In the end, it was possible to teach him to write only by making him trace letters and words written in red pencil.
This was to guide him to make the right movements.
However, his handwriting has so far been atrocious". Of Harro L, Asperger writes: His facial expressions were sparse and rigid Instead, it seemed he could only manage to move those muscular parts to which he directed a conscious effort of will.
He carried on writing carelessly, and messily, crossing out words, lines going up and down, the slant changing. His spelling, however, was reasonably accurate. As long as his attention was focused on one word, he knew how to spell it. It was very significant then that he made more spelling errors when copying that at dictation.
Really, one would expect that copying should not present any problems at all since the words were in front of him; but this very simple and straightforward task simply did not interest him".
Of Ernst K, Asperger notes: The pen did not obey him, it stuck and sputtered; he corrected without concern for appearance and would simply write new letters on top of old ones.
He could not possibly catch a ball however, easy one tried to make it for him For example, ill-coordinated movements and odd posture are noted in research studies by Burgoyne and Wing, ; Gillberg, ; Manjiviona and Prior, ; Klin et al, Many of these comment on handwriting as a special problem.
In this short article, our objective is to provide concrete evidence of the handwriting problems experienced by children who have been properly diagnosed by very experienced paediatricians and psychiatrists as having Asperger's Syndrome.
We present two contrasting case studies of children who currently attend mainstream schools in the U. Rather unusually one of these children is a girl current estimates of the ratio of boys to girls with AS is 4: So that the handwriting difficulties of the two children can be compared, we provide examples of their performance on a test called the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting ETCH, Amundson, This is an American test, which one of us DG has found very useful in clinical practice and which we feel provides quite good information on different dimensions of a child's handwriting problems.
For those not familiar with the content of the test, each child performs 7 tasks as follows: Writing the alphabet from memory in lower case then in upper case.
The child is instructed not to join the letters together and erasing or striking out is only permitted once. Writing the numerals from under the same conditions. The child is shown the sentence "Spaceships quickly orbited the moon" and is required to copy it from a sample placed on the desk surface beside them.where L S and L NS are susceptible and non-susceptible labour inputs and C is computer capital.
Computer capital is supplied perfectly elastically at market price per efficiency unit, where the market price is falling exogenously with time due to technological progress.
It was not until , in _____ that the first unified day-night police force was created.
News • September – Kickoff meeting for Network for multidisciplinary research into quantitative approaches to forensic analysis and inference 12 September @ Aston University, Birmingham, UK • August – I presented at the European Academy of Forensic Science Conference, Lyon, France, 27–31 August – slides for my presentation Accounting for a six year time.
An Objective Analysis Of The QAnon Phenomenon April 19 | From: VigilantCitizen Claiming to be a high-level government insider, “Q” has been posting cryptic messages on 8Chan, unveiling the extent of the “deep state” while claiming that it is about to be taken down.
Exclusive Head of Congressional Ethics Office Sued for Abusing Position, Accused of Assaulting Women A key official involved in House investigations faces a federal lawsuit alleging misconduct.
Inclusion of an article or a link on the pages of the kaja-net.com in no way represents an endorsement or recommendation of any part of that article or link by Crime Scene Resources Inc., the kaja-net.com, the site's webmaster, or the site's sponsors.